TMCO3, a Putative K+ :Proton Antiporter at the Golgi Apparatus, Is Important for Longitudinal Growth in Mice and Humans


Isolated short stature, defined as short stature without any other abnormalities, is a common heterogeneous condition in children. Exome sequencing identified the homozygous nonsense variant c.1832G>A/p.(Trp611*) in TMCO3 in two sisters with isolated short stature. Radiological studies, biochemical measurements, assessment of the skeletal status, and three-dimensional bone microarchitecture revealed no relevant skeletal and bone abnormalities in both sisters. The homozygous TMCO3 variant segregated with short stature in the family. TMCO3 transcript levels were reduced by ~50% in leukocyte-derived RNA of both sisters compared with controls, likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. In primary urinary cells of heterozygous family members, we detected significantly reduced TMCO3 protein levels. TMCO3 is functionally uncharacterized. We ectopically expressed wild-type TMCO3 in HeLa and ATDC5 chondrogenic cells and detected TMCO3 predominantly at the Golgi apparatus, whereas the TMCO3W611* mutant did not reach the Golgi. Coordinated co-expression of TMCO3W611* -HA and EGFP in HeLa cells confirmed intrinsic instability and/or degradation of the mutant. Tmco3 is expressed in all relevant mouse skeletal cell types. Highest abundance of Tmco3 was found in chondrocytes of the prehypertrophic zone in mouse and minipig growth plates where it co-localizes with a Golgi marker. Knockdown of Tmco3 in differentiated ATDC5 cells caused reduced and increased expression of Pthlh and Ihh, respectively. Measurement of long bones in Tmco3tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi knockout mice revealed significant shortening of forelimbs and hindlimbs. TMCO3 is a potential member of the monovalent cation:proton antiporter 2 (CPA2) family. By in silico tools and homology modeling, TMCO3 is predicted to have an N-terminal secretory signal peptide, forms a dimer localized to the membrane, and is organized in a dimerization and a core domain. The core domain contains the CPA2 motif essential for K+ binding and selectivity. Collectively, our data demonstrate that loss of TMCO3 causes growth defects in both humans and mice. © 2023 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

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StatusVeröffentlicht - 09.2023