The R1441C-LRRK2 mutation induces myeloid immune cell exhaustion in an age- and sex-dependent manner

  • Rebecca Wallings
  • Karen McFarland
  • Hannah Staley
  • Noelle Neighbarger
  • Susen Schaake
  • Norbert Brueggemann
  • Simone Zittel
  • Tatiana Usnich
  • Christine Klein
  • Esther Sammler
  • Malu Gamez Tansey

Beteiligte Einrichtungen


Considering age is the greatest risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases, aging, in particular aging of the immune system, is the most underappreciated and understudied contributing factor in the neurodegeneration field. Genetic variation around the LRRK2 gene affects risk of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) protein has been implicated in peripheral immune signaling, however, the effects of an aging immune system on LRRK2 function have been neglected to be considered. We demonstrate here that the R1441C mutation induces a hyper-responsive phenotype in macrophages from young female mice, characterized by increased effector functions, including stimulation-dependent antigen presentation, cytokine release, phagocytosis, and lysosomal function. This is followed by age-acquired immune cell exhaustion in a Lrrk2-kinase-dependent manner. Immune-exhausted macrophages exhibit suppressed antigen presentation and hypophagocytosis, which is also demonstrated in myeloid cells from R1441C and Y1699C-PD patients. Our novel findings that LRRK2 mutations confer immunological advantage at a young age but may predispose the carrier to age-acquired immune exhaustion have significant implications for LRRK2 biology and therapeutic development. Indeed, LRRK2 has become an appealing target in PD, but our findings suggest that more research is required to understand the cell-type specific consequences and optimal timing of LRRK2-targeting therapeutics.

Bibliografische Daten

StatusVeröffentlicht - 02.05.2024
PubMed 37905053