Validation of 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance in TIPS stent grafts using a 3D-printed flow phantom


BACKGROUND: Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is feasible for portal blood flow evaluation after placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, clinical acceptance of 4D flow CMR in TIPS patients is limited due to the lack of validation studies. The purpose of this study was to validate 4D flow CMR-derived measurements in TIPS stent grafts using a three-dimensional (3D)-printed flow phantom.

METHODS: A translucent flow phantom of the portal vasculature was 3D-printed. The phantom consisted of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein draining into the portal vein, the TIPS-tract, and the hepatic vein. A TIPS stent graft (Gore® Viatorr®) was positioned within the TIPS-tract. Superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein served as inlets for blood-mimicking fluid. 4D flow CMR acquisitions were performed at 3T at preset flow rates of 0.8 to 2.8 l/min using velocity encoding of both 1.0 and 2.0 m/s. Flow rates and velocities were measured at predefined levels in the portal vasculature and within the stent graft. Accuracy of 4D flow CMR was assessed through linear regression with reference measurements obtained by flow sensors and two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast (PC) CMR. Intra- and interobserver agreement were assessed through Bland-Altman analyses.

RESULTS: At a velocity encoding of 2.0 m/s, 4D flow CMR-derived flow rates and velocities showed an excellent correlation with preset flow rates and 2D PC CMR-derived flow velocities at all vascular levels and within the stent graft (all r ≥ 0.958, p ≤ 0.003). At a velocity encoding of 1.0 m/s, aliasing artifacts were present within the stent graft at flow rates ≥ 2.0 l/min. 4D flow CMR-derived measurements revealed high intra- and interobserver agreement.

CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro accuracy and precision of 4D flow CMR is unaffected by the presence of TIPS stent grafts, suggesting that 4D flow CMR may be used to monitor TIPS patency in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Bibliografische Daten

StatusVeröffentlicht - 13.02.2023

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© 2023. The Author(s).

PubMed 36775827