Association of the classification of intraoperative adverse events (ClassIntra) with complications and neurological outcome after neurosurgical procedures: a prospective cohort study


PURPOSE: To analyze the reliability of the classification of intraoperative adverse events (ClassIntra) to reflect intraoperative complications of neurosurgical procedures and the potential to predict the postoperative outcome including the neurological performance. The ClassIntra classification was recently introduced and found to be reliable for assessing intraoperative adverse events and predicting postoperative complications across different surgical disciplines. Nevertheless, its potential role for neurosurgical procedures remains elusive.

METHODS: This is a prospective, monocentric cohort study assessing the ClassIntra in 422 adult patients who underwent a neurosurgical procedure and were hospitalized between July 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021. The primary outcome was the occurrence of intraoperative complications graded according to ClassIntra and the association with postoperative outcome reflected by the Clavien-Dindo classification and comprehensive complication index (CCI). The ClassIntra is defined as intraoperative adverse events as any deviation from the ideal course on a grading scale from grade 0 (no deviation) to grade V (intraoperative death) and was set at sign-out in agreement between neurosurgeon and anesthesiologist. Secondary outcomes were the neurological outcome after surgery as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), modified Rankin scale (mRS), Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale, National Institute Health of Strokes Scale (NIHSS), and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), and need for unscheduled brain scan.

RESULTS: Of 442 patients (mean [SD] age, 56.1 [16.2]; 235 [55.7%] women and 187 [44.3%] men) who underwent a neurosurgical procedure, 169 (40.0%) patients had an intraoperative adverse event (iAE) classified as ClassIntra I or higher. The NIHSS score at admission (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.63, female gender (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.84), extracranial procedures (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.61), and emergency cases (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.53-3.78) were independent risk factors for a more severe iAE. A ClassIntra ≥ II was associated with increased odds of postoperative complications classified as Clavien-Dindo (p < 0.01), neurological deterioration at discharge (p < 0.01), prolonged hospital (p < 0.01), and ICU stay (p < 0.01). For elective craniotomies, severity of ClassIntra was associated with the CCI (p < 0.01) and need for unscheduled CT or MRI scan (p < 0.01). The proportion of a ClassIntra ≥ II was significantly higher for emergent craniotomies (56.2%) and associated with in-hospital mortality, and an unfavorable neurological outcome (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Findings of this study suggest that the ClassIntra is sensitive for assessing intraoperative adverse events and sufficient to identify patients with a higher risk for developing postoperative complications after a neurosurgical procedure.

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StatusVeröffentlicht - 08.2023

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© 2023. The Author(s).

PubMed 37407852